What is JEM Electronics all about?JEM Electronics Facility

JEM Electronics was established in 1981 and is located in beautiful Franklin, Massachusetts. JEM Electronics is a custom manufacturer of cable assemblies, electro-mechanical assemblies, and wire harness assemblies. After being in business for 30 years, we owe our consistent success to the practice of setting and achieving goals.

Our goals here at JEM Electronics are:

     1. To provide the best customer service possible                 
     2. To continuously improve our high level of quality 
     3. To complete the job correctly, on time and above each customers’ expectations

JEM’s quality, on time delivery (OTD), cost, and diversification in different industries has been instrumental in the success of the company.  JEM is constantly eliminating waste and improving efficiency through the practice of lean manufacturing.  We are always seeking higher standards of quality and performance in order to increase our value to you, our customer.

Why start the JEM Electronics Blog?

JEM’s extensive cable knowledge has developed from repetitive research and trial and error.  JEM is always learning, so we thought a blog would be a great way for JEM to extend this knowledge to our customers.

Our goals for the JEM Electronics Blog are:

     1. To educate our readers on industry news and events
     2. To introduce new products
     3. To answer any of your cable questions and needs

JEM will be posting new blogs regularly.  We hope you come and blog with us!

Happy blogging,
John McDonald
President/ CEO

Back To The JEM Home Page!



Table of Contents:

  • Introduction
  • How to Stretch Your Fiber Investment: Coiled Fiber Optics Cables
  • Are RJ45 Network Patch Cable Connectors Meeting Specifications?
  • HDMI v1.4: Taking HD to the Next Level
  • Armored Fiber Just Got Better: Introducing 4-core Armored Fiber
  • Standard Cat5e & Cat6 Network Cabling Structure
  • What RAY Should I Choose For My Fiber Optic Cable, Single Mode or Multi-Mode?
  • On-Time Delivery
  • The USB Road Map
  • Does HDMI Produce Best Picture?
  • Is Copper Becoming the "New Gold"?
  • Electronic Contract Manufacturing
  • Customer Driven Quality Assurance (QA)
  • Operation RoHS: Preventing a Global Level Electronic Waste Problem
  • The 3 Myths About Customization
  • International Organization for Standardization
  • 10 Tips to Selecting an Electronic Contract Manufacturer
  • Building Business Success Through Lean Manufacturing
  • VGA and DVI vs. HDMI
  • High Speed Data Transfers With Fiber Optics & Copper Cabling
  • Fiber Optic Connectors
  • 8 Steps to Fiber Optic Termination
  • 7 Common Quality Problems With Cat5e & Cat6 Ethernet Cables
  • Passive Optical Networks (PON) - Commonly Used Terms & Definitions
  • Optical Fiber Structural Solutions
  • The Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission Speeds
  • AmCon Tradeshow in Boston, MA
  • Electronic Contract Manufacturing Testing
  • The Wire Harnesses, Cable Assemble, & Wire Processing Guide for Choosing a Contract Manufacturer
  • Why Outsource Your Cable Assembly?
  • Counterfeit Electronic Components in the US Market
  • Optimize Your COTS Supply Chain Management
  • Fiber Optic Quick Reference Terminology
  • Continuity, HiPot, and Resistance Testing
  • HiPot Testing
  • Fiber Optics 101
  • Multi-core Armored Fiber Optic Cables
  • Dispersions in Fiber Optic Cables
  • Do Designers of Defense Electronic Systems Seek Out COTS Components?
  • What is Diffused Reflection or Light Scattering in Fiber Optic Cables?
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    How to Stretch Your Fiber Investment: Coiled Fiber Optic Cables

    You hear the term “Fiber Optics” being tossed around a lot with telecommunications, cable TV, and the internet. Fiber Optic cable is constructed of optically pure glass as thin as human hair. The down side to this high tech innovation is that the optically pure glass core is fragile; it cannot be stretched or bent because the glass core can break very easily.

    Coiled Fiber overcomes these issues, when extending or bundling Coiled Fiber, you do not have to be concerned with compromising the quality of the cable.  This results in substantial cost savings because you can buy one fiber cable to meet various length requirements.  Coiled Fiber is ideal for the following applications:

    1) Military/Defense

    1. Adaptable length extension – Reduces the number of fiber cables needed in the field.  One cable can be used in various applications that require different lengths. 
    2. Solution to tight space requirements - Can be utilized in applications that have limited space.  You have the benefit of flexible lengths while not having the issue of excess fiber cable.  The coiled design neatly bundles any excess fiber cable.
    3. Durability –Coiled Fiber can be extended and recoiled without fiber glass breakage, extending the life of the fiber cable. 

    2) Datacenter/IT/IS and Medical

    1. Organization –Cuts down on wire clutter and keeps excess cables off the ground.  Coiled Fiber not only helps with organization, but it also reduces safety hazards.  The fiber is coiled up tightly rather than having the excess fiber hanging loosely, causing a potential safety risk.
    2. Fits well in very tight spaces – Coiled Fiber utilizes less space.  This is an advantage when using the Coiled Fiber in an application that is short on space, or when storing the cable.  
    3. Accommodates various cable length requirements – Less fiber cables need to be purchased.  Furthermore, the problem of not having the correct length cable is reduced because one coiled fiber cable can meet various length requirements.  

    3) Robotics

      1. Flexibility –The coiled design is perfect for constantly moving parts that require fiber cables.  The flexible length extension greatly reduces the problem of fiber glass breakage.
      2. Cost savings –Fiber Optics are expensive.  Coiled Fiber can be stretched without breaking the fiber glass.  This means less fiber cables will be replaced, which saves the time and money associated with replacing damaged cables.  
      3. Long-lasting –The slinky-like design is rated for up to 80,000 stretches, which let’s your Coiled Fiber investment stretch even further.

    To check out our Coiled Fiber products, click the picture below:

    S  JEM Cable & Fiber Web Content Product Photos Coiled Fiber resized 600


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    Are RJ45 Network Patch Cable Connectors Meeting Specifications?

    In the latest industry news, there has been increasing dialogueNetwork Patch Cable RJ45 Connector regarding quality issues with RJ45 connectors. Manufacturers and distributors claim their RJ45 connectors meet or exceed Cat5e and Cat6 requirements, but do they really?  Connectors are reaching the marketplace without the requisite amount of gold on the connector contacts and without the correct type of gold.  This affects the network patch cables’ speed and performance, and, in the worst case, it could cause the network patch cable to not function at all.  The main issues companies are experiencing with the RJ45 connectors are: 

    • Amount of gold in the contact  

      • RJ45 connectors are supposed to meet a required minimum of micro inches of gold plating. There is speculation that some manufacturers are trying to “cut corners” by not meeting the required micro inches of gold plating

    • Type of gold in the contact  

      • RJ45 connectors are supposed to be manufactured with hard gold, such as 24 karat. There is speculation that some manufacturers are utilizing soft gold instead.  Soft gold is not hard-wearing enough for RJ45 connectors.

    Therefore, if you are experiencing issues with the functionality of your Cat5e and Cat6 network patch cables, it just may be due to the amount and type of gold being used in the RJ45 connectors. Companies need to be vigilant that their manufacturers and distributors are supplying a quality product that meets all RJ45 requirements.


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    HDMI v1.4: Taking HD to the Next Level

    What makes 3-Dimension possible?

    In 2002, the High-Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDMI 1.4v resized 600 (HDMI) was born. HDMI has been manufactured with an evolving set of specifications, each released as a different version and assigned a version number with new specifications. The first version was HDMI 1.0, and since then there has been nine different versions. Each version has used the same hardware and cable, but has increased the speed or throughput and the types of information that can be sent through them. For example, HDMI 1.0 supported a maximum bitrate of 4.9 Gbps, while HDMI 1.3 supports 10.2 Gbps. Now introducing the newest and tenth version HDMI 1.4:

    HDMI Ethernet Channel

    • Enables high-speed, bi-directional communication
    • Sends and receives data via 100Mb/sec Ethernet
    • Allows internet enabled HDMI devices to share an internet connection via HDMI link
    • Allows HDMI-enabled components to share content between devices

    Audio Return Cannel

      • Adds an audio channel that will reduce the number of cables required

    3D (3-Dimension)

    • Defines common 3D formats and resolution
    • Standardizes the input/output portion of the home 3D system, facilitating 3D resolution up to dual-stream 1080p

    4K Resolution

    • Enables HDMI devices to support extremely high HD resolutions effectively four times the resolution of a 1080p device
    • Transmits digital content at the same resolution as the state-of-the-art Digital Cinema systems used in many movie theatres

    Expanded Support for Color Spaces

      • Supports color spaces, which enables more accurate color rendering when viewing digital cameras

    HDMI Micro Connector (Type D)

    • Significantly smaller 19-pin HDMI connector supporting up to 1080p resolution for portable devices, including cell phones, portable media players, and digital cameras
    • 50% smaller than the pre-existing HDMI mini connector

    Automotive Connection System (Type E)

    • Provides a solution design to meet the rigorous and environmental issues found in automobiles such as temperature, vibration, and noise
    • Car manufacturers now have a connection system for HD quality distribution within a vehicle

    In conclusion, HDMI v1.4 added many specifications over the previous v1.3 that takes your HD viewing entertainment to the next level. Version 1.4 has raised the bar yet again with its new capabilities, including high speed Ethernet channel, 3D over HDMI, 4K Resolution, expanding support for color spaces, and the new automotive connection system.

    Click Here to Download the HDMI v1.4 White Papers!


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    Armored Fiber Just Got Better: Introducing 4-Core Armored Fiber

    Fiber Optic channels are expeditiously becoming the gigabit-per-second interconnect technology for high speed system designers. Fiber Optic technology is simply a method of carrying information from one point to another in the form of light. Fiber Optic is madedescribe the image up of a thin strand of glass which serves as an information super highway.  The light utilizes this super highway as a transmission medium over which information travels.

    Fiber Optics can send and receive data faster opposed to copper conducted electrical current because the data is transmitted with light pulses through the glass core. Having such a great advantage of speed also comes with an immense disadvantage. Since the Fiber Optic core is made out of a thin strand of glass, the cable is very fragile and must be handled very carefully. But what if you want the high speed of fiber and the durability of a copper cable? Then Armored Fiber might be the product you need.

    Armored Fiber is considered ruggedized Fiber Optics. The transmission speeds are equal, but the cable is equipped with a hard Kevlar shield that is encased by a stainless steel braid, which increases the durability 450%. Armored Fiber is designed to withstand in the harshest environments. The standard Fiber Optic configurations are simplex and duplex:describe the image

    Simplex Armored Fiber

    • Available in 9/125, 50/125, and 62.5/125
    • One strand of cable
    • One connector on each end

    Duplexdescribe the image Armored Fiber

    • Available in 9/125, 50/125, and 62.5/125 
    • Two individual cables grouped together 
    • Two connectors on each end 

     

    In addition to the standard simplex and duplex configurations, there is now a 4-Core Armored Fiber design. This unique format greatly reduces installation difficulties while providing additional support and durability.jsw 4 core fiber optic resized 600

    4-Core Armored Fiber

    • Available in 9/125, 50/125, and 62.5/125
    • Four  individual strands of Fiber shared through one ruggedized protective cable
    • 4 connectors on each end

    As Fiber Optics continue to modify the face of high speed interconnection technology, 4-Core Armored Fiber raises the bar yet again. With the incorporation of the 4-Core’s light weight Kevlar design and additional connector options, it is a perfect fit for any high speed system designer that needs to factor durability into their communication equation.

    hyhy resized 600

    Click Here to Download 4-Core Armored Fiber White Papers!


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    Standard Cat5e & Cat6 Network Cabling Structure

    A standard Network Patch Cable such as Cat5e and Cat6 has eight individual stranded or solid copper wires, with an additional ground or drain wire. Each individual wire is grouped together into what’s called a “Pair”. A Pair is two wires twisted together in a spiral format, which helps reduce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). EMI is caused by outside disturbances that interrupt, obstruct, or limit the effectiveness of the cable’s performance. EMI is commonly caused by crosstalk of other electrical devices. There are three different types of Crosstalk:

    Network Cable Structure resized 600

    Crosstalk Types:

    1. Near End Crosstalk (NEXT) is interference between two pairs in a cable measured at the same end of the cable as the transmitter.

    2. Far end crosstalk (FEXT) is interference between two pairs of a cable measured at the other end of the cable from the transmitter.
    3. Alien crosstalk (AXT) is interference caused by other cables routed close to the cable of interest.

    The most common Ethernet Network Cable and Telephone System Cables are Unshielded Twisted Pairs (UTP). Unshielded Twisted Pairs (UTP) has no metal shielding of any kind, UTP’s only protection from EMI is its internal structure with its twisted pairs. To help reduce additional EMI or Crosstalk, there are different types of shielding options. A shielded cable has a thin metal shield that acts as a protectant against outside electrical interferences. The standard shielding formats for the Cat5e and Cat6 Patch Cables can exist in three different formats.

    Shielding Formats:

      • Foiled Twisted Pairs (FTP):  foiled shielding surrounds all four pairs. 
    • Shielded Twisted Pairs (STP): each individual pair is wrapped in their own personal shield
    • Shielded Foiled Twisted Pairs (SFTP or S/STP): foiled shielding surrounds all four pairs and each individual pair is wrapped in their own personal shield 

    The most basic of the shielding formats is the Foiled Twisted Pairs (FTP). The FTP has a thin layer of metal foiling, under the jacket that encases all four pairs. The Shielded Twisted Pairs (STP) differs from the FTP, instead of one larger foil shield there are four separate smaller shields. In the STP format each individual pair is wrapped in a protective foil increasing the cables resistance to EMI even more. The last shielded format and most protective against the three different crosstalks is Shielded Foiled Twisted Pairs (SFTP or S/STP). The SFTP or S/STP has both the benefits of the FTP and STP formats. The SFTP or S/STP format has the outside foiling protection around the four pairs similar to the FTP format, but in addition, each individual pair is also individually wrapped. SFTP or S/STP is also commonly referred to as Double Shielding.

    describe the image
    • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pairs)

     

     

     

     describe the image

     

    • FTP (Foiled Twisted Pairs)

     

     

     

     describe the image

    • STP (Shielded Twisted Pairs)

     

     

     

     describe the image

    • SFTP or S/STP (Shielded Foiled Twisted Pairs)

     

     

     

    It is very important that EMI is taken into account when choosing between the different Cat5e and Cat6 formats. If the cable is going in a low EMI application then UTP is the most economical choice because the EMI or Crosstalk will not greatly affect the performance of your cables. The structure of the Cat5e and Cat6 Network Patch Cable is designed to reduce EMI and crosstalk for your most basic applications (internet connection, etc). For applications that are subjected to abundant crosstalk interference, it is vital to select a shielding that will correctly optimize the cables performance.

    Click Here to Download Cat5e & Cat6 White Paper!


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    What RAY Should I Choose For My Fiber Optic Cable, Single Mode or Multi-Mode?

    An Optical Fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a "light pipe" to transmit data signals in the form of light from one end to the other. Currently aerospace and communication design engineers are using Fiber Optics for highly reliable, real-time networking, as well as for low-latency, high-throughput signal processing applications. Fiber Optics comes in two different standard applications; Single Mode and Multi-Mode. Both Single Mode and Multi-Mode have particular benefits but are designed to be optimal in two different ways.

    Single Mode

    Single Mode optical fiber is designed to carry only a single ray of light; this produces more of a direct line. 

    • Used for longer distances

    • Smaller core size, typically between 8 and 10µm.

    • Common for telecommunications

    Multi-Mode

    As light travels through a Multi-Mode fiber optic cable, the light is bounced back and forth towards the ending direction. The bouncing of the rays of light is more suitable for multiple and shorter connections. 

    • Larger core size

    • Used for shorter distances, such as within a building.

    • Multi-mode fiber has a higher light-gathering capacity than single mode. 

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    It is very important when choosing the correct fiber optic cabling format, that you take into account what capabilities the fiber optic will need to carry out. If the fiber cable is going to be used for long distances, Single Mode is the best choice. If your application requires a shorter distance, that Multi-mode would be most effective. Choosing the correct format is vital to get the most out of your fiber optic investment.

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    On-Time Delivery

    In nearly every business relationship, expectations are set and alldescribe the image parties involved make efforts to fulfill their commitment.  In a good relationship, those expectations are met.  In a great relationship, those expectations are exceeded.

    When delivery expectations aren’t met, more than just the business relationship is at stake.  Your internal operations suffer, and your ability to meet customer expectations is compromised. 

    Just think about your business…

    What happens when materials are late?  

    • Are products late to market? 

    • Are other divisions of your business affected?

    • What happens to your production schedule?

    • Do you become unable to meet deadlines internally and for clients?

    • Have you seen reduced business from customers, or even lost clients?

     

    At JEM Electronics, we pride ourselves on living up to our commitments so you can live up to yours.  In the past 12 months, JEM has had a 98% OTD rate. Here is how we do it:

    • Production Capabilities – JEM practices Lean Manufacturing which helps OTD in two key ways.  First, we remain efficient in all of our processes so that we can meet the deadlines set by clients.  Second, we are flexible, which allows us to adapt to the changing needs of our customers in a responsive matter.

    • Strategic Partnerships – In order to hold ourselves to the highest of standards to clients, we hold our strategic partners and suppliers to the highest standards.  JEM continually looks for ways to improve its performance, including the suppliers we do business with.  The strength of the relationships that have been built over thirty years in business gives JEM the ability to offer competitive pricing and lead times while maintaining the highest quality.

    • Account Managers – Account Managers constantly communicate with all JEM departments so that when clients have questions, the questions are answered accurately and quickly.  At JEM, our commitment to client communication is key.  Our goal is to set proper expectations with clients and be proactive in improving our business relationships.

    About JEM Electronics


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    The USB Roadmap

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    The older version USB 2.0 communications are all half-duplex and directionally controlled by the host. The new and improved USB 3.0 is a full-duplex (two data transfer channels, instead of one) styled communications, utilizing SuperSpeed data transfer capabilities. USB 3.0 receptacles are electrically compatible with the 2.0 device plugs in most combinations.

    Questions you might be asking yourself:

    1. What are the different series of connectors?

    2. What standard connector combinations does the USB come in?

    3. Which is better, 3.0 or 2.0?

    Connector Series

    The standard USB cables can be fitted with three different series of connectors, Standard A and B, Mini A and B, and Micro AB and B. Each series of connectors is an evolution from the previous series. Both 2.0 and 3.0 versions share the same connector series.

    Standard Connectors

    • Type A- Inserts into a "downstream-port" to the USB host and carries both power and data. This plug is frequently seen on cables that are permanently attached to a device, such asdescribe the image those with a keyboard or computer mouse. This is because the USB connections eventually wear out as the male and female connectors loosen through repeated plugging and unplugging. The lifetime for a Type A male connector is approximately 1,500 connect/disconnect cycles.
    • Type B- Typically is an "upstream receptacle" on a devicedescribe the image that uses a removable cable such as a printer. In addition to supplying data, the Type B connector also supplies power. On some devices, the Type B has no data connection, it’s solely for power.

     

    Mini Connectors

    • Mini-A and Mini-B: Thinner versions of their big brothers Type A and Type B. Mini A and B are often used by digital camcorders, but have the same capabilities as the standard connectors.Mini USB resized 600 Micro USB resized 600

     

    Micro Connectors

    • Micro-A and Micro-B: The thinner and even smaller Micro series are intended to replace the Mini connectors in new devices including smartphones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Unlike the Standard and Mini connectors the Micro connectors are design rated for at least 10,000 connect-disconnect cycles. As a result, the Micro connectors have a longer life cycle.Micro USB resized 600Micro USB resized 600

    USB Connector Chart resized 600

    3.0 vs. 2.0

    In a side by side comparison of the 3.0 vs. the 2.0, the 3.0 seems to be far superior to its older brother 2.0. A new feature is the "SuperSpeed" bus, which provides a fourth transfer mode at 5.0 Gbit/s. The raw throughput is 4 Gbit/s, and the specification considers it reasonable to achieve 3.2 Gbit/s (0.4 Gbyte/s or 400 MByte/s), or more, after protocol overhead. When operating in SuperSpeed mode full-duplex signaling occurs over two differential pairs separate from the non-SuperSpeed differential pair. This results in USB 3.0 cables containing two wires for power and ground, two wires for non-SuperSpeed data, and four wires for SuperSpeed data, and a shield that was not required in previous specifications. You should choose USB 3.0 if you want the most advanced USB speed, compatibility, and reliability.

    USB White Papers!


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    Does HDMI Produce the Best Picture?

    The Graphics Display Resolution (GDR) is the platform in which Video Graphics Array (VGA), Digital Visual Interface (DVI), and High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) are compared on. The graphics display resolution describes the width and height dimensions of a display, such as a computer monitor and television in pixels (ex. 480p).

    High Resolution Display- results in a greater pixel correlation, the displayed content appears sharper and smaller.

    Low Resolution Display- low pixel accumulation, the content appears fuzzy and obscured.

    The “Pixel” is the smallest addressable screen element, it is the smallest unit of picture that can be controlled. Each pixel has its own address.

    • Pixel CoordinationLCD resized 600

      • Each pixel is a sample of an original image, more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original.

    • Pixel Intensity

      • In color image systems, a color is typically represented by three or four component intensities such as red, green, and blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

    The graphics display resolution chart is based on an evolutionary style since 1987, when VGA was first introduced by IBM. Listed on the chart below are the five graphic catagories and the pixel format for each version.

    1. Video Graphics Array (VGA)

    1.1.    VGA (480p)

    1.2.    WVGA (480p)

    1.3.    FWVGA (480p)

    1.4.    QVGA (240p)

    1.5.    WQVGA (240p)

    1.6.    HQVGA (160p)

    1.7.    QQVGA (120p)

    1.8.    HVGA (320p)

    1.9.    WSVGA (576p)

    2. Extended Graphics Array (XGA)

    2.1.    XGA (768p)

    2.2.    WXGA (768p)

    2.3.    XGA + (864p)

    2.4.    WSXGA (900p)

    2.5.    SXGA  (1024p)

    2.6.    SXGA + (1050p)

    2.7.    WSXGA + (1050p)

    2.8.    UXGA  (1200p)

    2.9.    WUXGA (1200p)

    3. Quad-extended Graphics Array  (QXGA)

    3.1.    QXGA (1536p)

    3.2.    WQXGA (1600p)

    3.3.    QWXGA (1152p)

    3.4.    QSXGA (2048p)

    3.5.    WQSXGA (2048p)

    3.6.    QUXGA (2400p)

    3.7.    WQUXGA (2400p)

    4. Hyper-extended Graphics Array (HXGA)

    4.1.    HXGA (3072p)

    4.2.    WHXGA (3072p)

    4.3.    HSXGA (4096p)

    4.4.    WHSXGA (4096p)

    4.5.    HUXGA (4800p)

    4.6.    WHUXGA (4800p)

    5. Multiples of 720p and 1080p

    5.1.    WQHD (1440p)

    5.2.    QFHD (2160p)

    HDMI v1.4 falls in the highest resolution category, producing 1080i resolution and beyond. The standard HDMI cable will handle regular TV broadcast quality at 1080i/60, high-speed supports video resolution beyond 1080p, along with deep color and 3D formats, and then there’s the Ethernet cable capability. If you’re looking for the latest and greatest in GDR for you digital audio & video sources then HDMI v1.4 is the way to go.

    JEM's Free HighSpeed HDMI White Papers!


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    Is Copper Becoming the "New Gold"?

    The world’s largest market of precious metals is the London Metal Exchange (LME). The LME offers worldwide reference pricing for metals such as aluminum, copper, tin, nickel, zinc, lead, gold, etc. The most expensive of these metals is gold, due to its rarity and unique properties, but another metal of great popularity that has been growing higher in demand, Copper.

    Normally copper prices have been steadily increasing 3% over the last several years according to the LME, but recently, due to supply and demand, copper prices have grown 23% over the past year.

    Why is this?.....

    Copper’s unique properties allow it to be utilized in many different industries such as:

    • Electrical Industry

      • Approximately 65% of copper produced is used for electrical applications, such as copper patch cables.

    • Construction Industry

      • 25% of all the copper produced is used in buildings - for plumbing, roofing and cladding.

    • Transportation Industry

      • Trains, trams, cars and lorries all need copper and transport accounts for 7% of copper usage.

    Copper provides light, durable maintenance-free structures that are naturally good looking, long lasting and fully recyclable. Along with durability, copper has the second highest electrical conductivity under its more expensive cousin Silver. In addition, copper has excellent resistance to heat and pressure.These diversified usages has resulted in the recent increased demand for copper.

    Is Copper becoming the new gold?

    It is no doubt that gold earns its high demand for it rarity, but copper has more usage in today’s society. This rising copper phenomenon can be explained by the increasing population of the world. As the population grows, so does the rate of consumption. We are finally at the point where the rate of consumption is higher than the ability of copper production. According to supply and demand, when demand increase and supplies decrease, value is created.

    Will copper one day be more expensive than gold….?

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    Electronic Contract Manufacturing

    What is Electronics Contract Manufacturing (ECM)?

    Electronic manufacturing services (EMS) or Electronic Contract Manufacturing (ECM) are terms used for companies that design, manufacture, test, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

    Industries that utilize Contract Manufacturersdescribe the image

    • Aerospace

    • Telecommunications

    • Defense

    • Computer

    • Semiconductors

    • Energy

    • Medical

    • Food Manufacturingdescribe the image

    • Automotive

    JEM Electronics: Contract Manufacture

    Industries dealing with EMS have high standards and values that are important to their company’s business plan. JEM has had over 30 years of success as an ECM because of their:

    1. High Quality Standards

    2. Wide Manufacturing Capabilities describe the image

    3. 98% On Time Delivery

    4. Customer & Supplier Relationships

    5. Design & Customization Capabilities

    JEM Electronics is an established contract manufacture that gratifies it’s self on design, testing, and distribution capabilities of electro-mechanical cable assemblies.

    • Custom Cable Assemblies

    • Custom Electro-Mechanical Assembliesdescribe the image

    • Custom Wire Harnesses

    • Custom labeling, kitting, & packaging

    • Flexible Manufacturing Technology

    • Design Assistance

    • Quality Assurance

    • Specialized Testing

    Industries that utilize Electronic Contract Manufacturers (EMC) are looking for manufacturing capabilities, product customization and flexibility, and overall customer satisfaction. JEM is constantly seeking higher standards of quality and performance at every level through its lean practices and production technology. As a contract manufacturer, JEM is able to provide a wide range of specialized services to meet every customer’s individual needs.


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    Customer Driven Quality Assurance (QA)

    JEM Electronics has developed, implemented, and maintained a documented JEM Quality Management System (JQMS) to consistently provide products that satisfy all customers’ quality requirements. The JQMS ensures that all company data used for manufacturing, testing and reporting is accurate. A program is in place to ensure that all electrical monitoring data is reliable and meets appropriate quality assurance (QA) requirements.

    What is Quality Assurance (QA)?

    Quality assurance (QA) is the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service or facility to maximize the probability that minimum standards of quality are being attained by the production process.

    • Cost Saving of QAqualityassurancecareer resized 600

      • Prevention Costs

      • Appraisal Costs

      • Internal Failure Costs

      • External Failure Costs

    • Customer Satisfaction

      • Providing exactly what the customer needs, defect free, and on time is vital to prosper in this industry.

    What is “Excellent” QA?

    Excellent QA starts and ends with the customer. JQMS complies with the International Standard ISO 9001: 2008, its automotive equivalent, TS16949 2009 3rd edition, and the medical equivalent, ISO13485:2003. Quality is determined by the customer, but the key to carrying excellent quality assurance is:

    1. Planning & Outlining

      1. JEM’s Customer Driven Quality Assurance Outline:

        1. Customer Orientation

        2. Quality Leadership

        3. Employee Involvement & Tactics

        4. Process Management

        5. System Management

        6. Continual Improvement

        7. Close Supplier Relationships

    2. Qualified Training

      1. Employee Qualifications & Certifications:

        1. IPC-A-610 Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies-Class A instructor

        2. J-STD-001B Mil-spec Soldering

        3. ANSI-RAB Lead Auditor Training

        4. Komax Training (Set-up and Safety)

        5. Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)

        6. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

        7. Lean Manufacturing

        8. IPC-A-620A Criteria

    3. Constant Improvement

      1. JEM is constantly seeking higher standards of quality and performance at every level, because continuous improvement is the only way to increase value to the customer.

    JEM’s Quality Assure Documentation

    JEM has always prided itself on the ability to deliver high quality, defect free products to its clients on time. Our commitment to quality has resulted in the highest of praises from our customer base, including Supplier Quality awards and Lean Excellence Awards.

    • Company Certifications:

      • ISO/TS 16949:2009

      • ISO 9001:2008

      • ISO 13485:2003

      • AIAG Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)/Control Planiso logo resized 600

      • Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA)

      • Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)

      • Statistical Process Control (SPC)

      • Management System Analysis (MSA)

      • Customer’s Documentation Requirements

    • Specialized Testing Capabilities:

      • Hi-Potiso logo resized 600

      • Resistance

      • Continuity

      • Pull Test

      • Destructive Testing

    A manufacturer needs to first and foremost listen to the needs of its customers in order to provide the highest level of Quality Assurance. JEM’s dedicated Quality Management team meets and exceeds the customers’ requirements with its robust Quality Management System and Certifications.


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    Operation RoHS: Preventing a Global Level Electronic Waste Problem

    RoHS is often referred to as the lead-free directive, but it also restricts the use of five other hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. It is closely linked with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) 2002/96/EC which sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for electrical goods and is part of a legislative initiative to solve the problem of huge amounts of toxic e-waste (electronics waste). 

    RoHS Restricted Hazardous Materials  e waste resized 600

    Why is RoHS Compliance Important?

    RoHS restricts materials that are hazardous to the environment, pollute landfills, and are dangerous in terms of occupational exposure during manufacturing and recycling.

    RoHS Labeling

    RoHS does not require any specific product labeling; however, many manufacturers have adopted their own compliance marks to reduce confusion. Visual indicators in use today include:

    • "RoHS Compliant" labels

     describe the image

     

      

     

    • Green leaves

     describe the image

     

     

     

    • Check marks

     describe the image

     

     

     

    • "PB-Free" markings

     describe the image

     

     

     

    RoHS Product Testing

    Portable RoHS analyzers, also known as X-ray fluorescence or XRF metal analyzers are used for screening and verification of RoHS compliance.

    The waste piles of compux ray resized 600ter products and other electronics are extremely harmful to all life on Earth. Improperly handling discarded electronics, such as dismantling without proper controls or simply tossing the materials in the trash, can expose hazardous chemical compounds know to negatively affect human and environmental health. RoHS compliance aids in reducing some of the mass quanity of Hazardous Electronic Waste (e-waste), thus creating a better world for tomorrow.

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    The 3 Myths about Customization

    Since the introduction of interchangeable parts, industries have been setting standards to cut down costs and produce products that are uniform. When you hear the term “Custom”, you think “not standard”, and therefore more expensive. There’s also a couple other issues that most people associate with custom products.

    1. Higher Cost

      1. Anything custom made costs more money.gold dollar sign resized 600

    2. Quality Issues

      1. New products/designs that aren’t standardized always have quality issues.

    3. Long Production Time

      1. Anything custom made takes too long to manufacture.

    A custom cable assembly means that the assembly is made specifically to meet the customer’s individual needs. In the industrial age the standardization of parts was crucial to the concept of the assembly line process. Most companies believe the way to increase efficiency and achieve a lower cost structure is to limit product variety and produce a standardized product in large volume, otherwise known as Mass Production. By this concept of economies to scale any deviation from the standardized products results in additional costs. This additional cost derives from:

    • Labor

      • Additional labor costs due to training and troubletime warp resized 600 shooting in the adoption of a new production process.

    • Tooling Cost

      • Inquiring new tools to execute the new products.

    • Production Time

      • Time spent on setting up production to accommodate something that isn’t the norm.

    What if there was a company that could utilize customization to meet the customer’s individual needs?

    As a highly creditable Electronic Contractcn spl cust sat resized 600 Manufacturer (ECM) with over 30 years of industry experience, JEM believes that their most crucial asset is their customers and no two customers are the same. Every customer requires different attention and care to their individual needs. Only when realizing what’s most important to the customer, can you work to obtain and preserve that.  JEM’s flexible production technology or lean production covers a range of technologies designed to reduce the setup time for complex equipment, quality management, and adhere to the customer’s every needs.

     

     


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    International Organization for Standardization

    ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards. ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a network of the national standards institutes of 160 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.ISO ISO resized 600

    Why Standards Matter

    1. Standards make an enormous and positive contribution to most aspects of our lives.
    2. Standards ensure desirable characteristics of products and services such as quality, environmental friendliness, safety, reliability, efficiency and interchangeability - and at an economical cost.

    What Standards Do 

    • Make the development, manufacturing, and supply of products and services more efficient, safer and cleaner, QA

    • Facilitate trade between countries and make it fairersuccess or failure resized 600

    • Provide governments with a technical base for health, safety and environmental  legislation, and conformity assessment

    • Share technological advances and good management practice

    • Safeguard consumers, and users in general, of products and services

    • Make life simpler by providing solutions to common problems

    Whose Standards Benefit

    1. Businesses

      • Suppliers can develop and offer products and services meeting specifications that have wide international acceptance in their sectors. Therefore, businesses using International Standards can compete on many more markets around the world.

    2. Customers

      • The worldwide compatibility of technology which is achieved when products and services are based on International Standards gives them a broad choice of offers. They also benefit from the effects of competition among suppliers.

    3. Governments

      • International Standards provide the technological and scientific bases underpinning health, safety and environmental legislation.

    4. Trade Officials

        • International Standards create "a level playing field" for all competitors on those markets. The existence of divergent national or regional standards can create technical barriers to trade.
    5. Developing Countries

      • By defining the characteristics that products and services will be expected to meet on export markets, International Standards give developing countries a basis for making the right decisions when investing their scarce resources and thus avoid squandering them.

    6. Consumers

      • Conformity of products and services to International Standards provides assurance about their quality, safety and reliability.

    7. The Planet

      • We inhabit, International Standards on air, water and soil quality, on emissions of gases and radiation and environmental aspects of products can contribute to efforts to preserve the environment.

    Work Cited: International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

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    10 Tips to Selecting an Electronic Contract Manufacturer

    There are over 100,000 Electronic Contract Manufacturers (ECM) based all over the world. Many industries such as; Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Government sectors like Military & Defense, Automotive, Medical, and Aerospace need to utilize the skilled expertise of a qualified ECM. But, this isn’t just another passive decision like deciding where to get the best deal on gas. This will aid in the overall success or failure of your company.

    • Where do you start? describe the image
    • What do you look for? 
    • Aren't all ECMs the same? 

    Ten Questions that needs to be answered:

    1. How long have they been in business?

    2. Where is the work being completed?

    3. Production flexibility and nimbleness?

    4. Where are the production facilities located?

    5. What is the company’s overall financial health?

    6. Is theTechnical Resources resized 600ir engineering support on staff?

    7. What certifications do they have and/or need?

    8. Manufacturing capacity?

    9. What are their core competencies?

    10. Does the company have a high turnover rate?

    Guidelines to selecting a qualified, successful ECM:

    1. How Long Have They Been In Business? - Longevity is a sign of strength. While their competitors have come and gone, the company that has managed to endure the test of time will most likely be a strong business partner.

    2. Where Is The Work Completed? - Some companies are sending work overseas to be completed where labor is cheaper, thus they can charge a less expensive rate to the customer, thus saving you money. On the other hand, you may require your assemblies to be built in the U.S.A.

    3. Flexibility?How can the manufacturer respond to your production needs? Can the manufacturer source the components needed to build your assembly? Is the manufacturer willing to work with customer supplied components? By allowing the contract manufacturer to take care of this detail you free yourself of the time, money and frustration of doing all yourself.

    4. Location, Location, Location. - Are you able to drive to where the manufacturer is located? If so, can you stop by whenever you wish? The location is important because the facility should be looked upon as an extension of your supply chain. Nothing should be hidden from you and the ability to see what is going on with your project should never be an issue.

    5. Company’s Financial Health? - Your contract manufacturer needs to have the ability to access cash or lines of credit in order to purchase raw materials, equipment, etc. in order to meet the needs of your company. A company that has its money tied up is unable to do this.

    6. Is Their Engineering Support On Staff? - An on-staff engineer will have the ability to reverse engineer, interpret and/or adapt your product where it falls short. In many cases, contract manufacturing firms are only able to build to print. This additional support is invaluable.

    7. Certifications? - Is the company UL certified? Are they ITAR certified? ISO9001:2008? Does your end client have specifications that the products have certain certifications?

    8. Manufacturing Capacity? - Does the contract manufacturer have sufficient floor space and staff to accommodate dramatic increases in production? If your product line suddenly takes off in the marketplace, your contract manufacturer must have the ability to meet the demand.

    9. Core Competencies?Some companies pride themselves on customer satisfaction, being able to conform to the customers every need. What are the manufacture’s core competencies? Can the manufacture meet all your production needs? The more work the manufacturer can perform in-house, the less work that will have to be outsource making it likely that your cost and lead time will be reduced.
    10. Does The Company Have High Turnover? - Companies with a low turnover rate tend to have seasoned technicians that have steep learning curves. Their error rates are dramatically low in comparison to newer technicians, and their experience allows them to complete the job more quickly and efficiently, thus lowering the cost for your company.

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    Building Business Success through Lean Manufacturing

    Lean Manufacturing is a systematic team approach to identifying and eliminating waste at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection.  There are three important key elements: team work, customer, and the pursuit of perfection.

    1. Team WorkTeamwork resized 600
      1. In order for Lean practices to be implemented and sustained, everyone must be involved.

    2. Customer
      1. During the business process the customer is the next person in line, whether it’s the internal or external customer.

    3. Pursuit of Perfection
      1. The Lean process is an ongoing process that has no end. It requires continuously identifying and eliminating waste.

    The objective of Lean Manufacturing is to eliminate waste. In order to eliminate wastes you must identify them first. Mapping out the current process, whether it is manufacturing custom cable assemblies or entering orders, will allow you to see where the wastes are. Then you must map out a future state that eliminates this waste. Incorporating these improvements will allow your company to identify wastes, increase efficiency, and optimize inventory flow.

    1. What is Waste in Manufacturing?
      1. Activities that do not add value to the product or service.

      2. Activities that our customers are not willing to pay for.

    2. The 8 Wastes Cause “Downtime”
      1. Defects

      2. Over-production

      3. Waiting

      4. Non-utilized People

      5. Transportation

      6. Inventory in Excess

      7. Motion

      8. Extra processing

    Values of Eliminating Waste 

    • Significantly reduces process cycle-time

    • Eliminates costly non-value-added activities

    • Enhances value creation and team focus

    • Reduces non-recurring and indirect costs

    • Improves utilization of scarce resources

    • Maximizes synergy among all related processes

    JEM is continually seeking process improvement opportunities in order to provide our customers with the highest quality standards and On Time Delivery (OTD). From investing in more efficient equipment and software to employee training, JEM is continuously striving to eliminate waste in order to improve the quality of its products while reducing its cost.

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    VGA and DVI vs. HDMI

    When it comes to very high visual quality on a digital display such as flat panel LCD computer monitor and digital projectors, choosing the right digital display cable is key. There are two different choices Video Graphics Array (VGA) and Digital Visual Interface (DVI).

    Video Graphics Array (VGA)

    First let’s start off with the VGA because it came first. The VGA connector was the first version of a digital display cables. The 15-pin D-subminiature VGA styled connector produced a 640 x 480 resolution and was released by IBM in 1987. VGA connectors quickly became the computer display standard.

    Digital Visual Interface (DVI)

    Designed to replace the VGA connector, the DVI was revealed in 1999. It is designed for carrying uncompressed digital video data to a display. The difference with the DVI is that it provides two types of video signals, single and dual.

    In the case of dual-link systems, additional pins are provided for the second set of data signals. The digital signal of the DVI is the same analog signal found on a VGA connector, allowing VGA monitors to be connected with a simple plug adapter. This feature was included to make DVI universal, as it allows either type of monitor (analog or digital) to be operated from the same connector. The DVI connector is given a name depending on which signal it implements:

    describe the image 

    VGA and DVI are great options for high visual quality on digital display, but what about the audio?

    High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)

    HDMI is a compact audio/video interface for transmitting digital data. The HDMI connector can either be single-link (Type A/C) or dual-link (Type B) ans can have a video pixel rate of 25 MHz to 340MHz (for a single-link connection) or 25 MHz to 680 MHz (for dual-link connection). The most recent version of HDMI is 1.4, which has another added feature, ethernet capabilities.

    The main difference between DVI and HDMI is typically DVI does not carry audio data. Because HDMI is electronically compatible with the signals used by DVI, no signal conversion is nessary, nor is there a loss of video quality when a DVI-to-HDMI adapters are used. After evaluating the facts HDMI offers more capabilities with the audio feature, has higher pixel resolution, and can process information faster.


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    High Speed Data Transfers with Fiber Optics & Copper Cabling

    Fiber Optic Glass vs. Copper Cabling

    Communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another. In order to transmit data over long distances, there needs to be a transmission medium. Two types of transmission mediums are; Copper and Glass Core. Copper has been utilized for over 30 years as the industry leader because of its reliability, cheap cost, and durability. A newer technology that is gaining market share and representing itself as the fastest, high-speed transmission medium is Fiber Optics. Fiber vs. Copper resized 600

    Three questions you should ask when strategizing the best communication format for your company are:

    1. What are the specifications the cable needs to carry out?

    2. What is the cost associated with this decision?

    3. Are you utilizing the correct format for the application the cable will be used for?

    Fiber Optic

    One of the advantages to Fiber Optics is the extremely wide bandwidth, which allows an increase in information carrying capacity. The bandwidth of a Fiber Optic cable far exceeds that of cooper cable assemblies. As a signal travels along a transmission medium, either glass fiber optics or copper cable assemblies, the signal will naturally lose strength. The term attenuation is used to describe the decreasing properties, as energy, per unit area of a wave or a beam of particles, occurring as the distance from the source increases as a result of absorption, scattering, or loss of signal strength. In a copper wire the attenuation increases as the frequency of information increases. Fiber Optics gains another benefit here because the attenuation virtually stays the same, even under very high frequency data transfer.

    The Need for Speed (Fiber Optics):Bugatti resized 600

    • Bandwidth
    • Transmission Speed
    • Attenuation Loss

    Copper

    Copper conductor cables have be utilized in many industries, such as the telecommunications and automotive industries for years, because copper is an excellent conductor, cheap in cost, and very durable. Fiber Optics, on the other hand, is very fragile because of its thin hair like glass core, in which the data is transferred.

    Solid & Cheap (Copper):

    • Lower Costdescribe the image
    • Durable
    • Reliable

     

     

    When strategizing the best communication format for your company, make sure you know what your company’s needs are. Fiber Optics, offers larger bandwidths, which increases its information carrying capabilities, the fastest data transfer capabilities, and a performances level that prevents large attenuation loss. Copper, is material cost is lower, very durable, and has been utilized in communication industries for years. The overall decision needs to work best for the specifications that needs to be carried out and you company. What will you decide?

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    Fiber Optic Connectors

    Optical fibers are terminated with specialized connectors designed to protect and align the glass core for future connections. If the fiber optic cores are not precisely aligned within the connector, an air gap can form. When air gaps form between the two glass cores, it results in insertion loss and return loss. Both insertion and return loss can dramatically affect the performance of your fiber optic cable. Some of the standard types of connectors are: FC, SC, ST, LC, and MTRJ.

    SC Fiber Optic Connector StructureOptical Fiber Connector resized 600

    SC Connector Components:

    • Connector Housing

      • Connector housing provides the mechanism for snapping into a mating sleeve (adapter) and holding the connector in place.

    • Connector Sub-assembly

      • The ferrule is designed to hold the cable and fiber in place. The end of the ferrule protrudes out of the sub-assembly body to mate with another SC connector inside a mating sleeve (also called adapter or coupler).

    • Fiber Ferrule

      • SC connector is built around a long cylindrical 2.5mm diameter ferrule, made of ceramic (zirconia) or metal (stainless alloy). The end of the fiber is at the end of the ferrule, where it typically is polished smooth.

    • Crimp Eyelet

      • The Fiber optic cable is crimped onto the connector sub-assembly body with a crimp eyelet. This provides the strength for mechanical handing of the connector without putting stress on the fiber itself.

    • Bare Buffer & Exterior Boot

      • A stress relief boot covers the joint between connector body and fiber cable and protects the fiber cable from mechanical damage.

    Fiber optic cables are designed to transfer data from one location to another. The data is sent through the glass core medium in the form of light pulses. The purpose of the fiber optic connectors is to precisely secure and align the glass core within the connector to reduce insertion loss and return loss. Loss is minimized when the two fiber cores are identical and perfectly aligned. In a sense, your fiber optic cable is only as good as the precision in which it’s installed.

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    8 Steps to Fiber Optic Termination

    Fiber optic termination is one of the most crucial processes in manufacturing a successful high speed transmission fiber optic cable. There are two types of fiber termination: connector and slicing. Fiber optic connectors are utilized for applications that demand variable disconnections and connections. Splicing is the process of connecting two bare fibers directly without any connectors. A fiber optic connector is basically a rigid cylindrical barrel surrounded by a sleeve that holds the barrel in its mating socket.

    Material:

    fiber optic tools resized 600

    Connector Termination Process:

    1. First, the fiber optic connector is usually placed in a secure position to prevent movement. A common tool in the industry for securing a fiber optic connector is called an “Assembling Jig.”

    2. Once the connector is secure, it is very important to place the boot of the connector around the cable first. This will help prevent objects passing over the fragile glass core.

    3. Now that you have your boot securely over your fiber optical cable, you can start stripping the outer jacket of the fiber optic cable off. It is extremely important to remember not to damage or nick the small fragile glass core for this will reflect your optical fibers performance. The thicker, semi translucent fiber is referred to as 0.9 buffer and should measure out to about 30mm.

    4. Now that you have the fiber optic core exposed, it needs to be cleaned. Clean the fragile glass filament with a lint free gauze and pure alcohol to remove any dust or impurities.

    5. The 0.9 buffer is then placed in a secure fiber holder to prevent the fiber from sliding around during the final assembly processes.

    6. The secured fiber in the fiber hold is then placed into a fiber cleaver. A fiber cleaver will trim down you 0.9 fiber buffer into what referred to as bare fiber: 9-11mm.

    7. Now that you have the bare glass fiber, place it gingerly into the connector in the connector holder. This aids in aligning the fiber optic core directly in the center of the connector.

    8. Now that the bare fiber optic core has met and is securely in the connector, the connector boot is then slid towards the base of the connector, locking the fiber in place.

    Polishing

    Once the fiber is set, the ends are polished to a mirror finish. The type of polish profile utilized depends on the type of fiber and application. For single-mode fiber, fiber ends are typically polished with a slight curvature that makes the mated connectors touch only at their cores. This is called a Physical Contact (PC) polish. The curved surface may be polished at an angle, to make an Angled Physical Contact (APC) connection. Such connections have higher loss than PC connections, but greatly reduce back reflection because light that reflects from the angled surface leaks out of the fiber core. The resulting signal strength loss is called ''Gap Loss''. APC fiber ends have low back reflection even when disconnected.

    Summary

    Fiber optic termination can be completed in two different ways: splicing and connector termination. During the splicing process, a permanent joint is created between the two fibers. The connector termination process utilizes quick-disconnect connectors for applications that require multiple disconnection and connection. The fiber optic termination process must be installed in a very delicate manner to prevent any damage to the fragile glass core. During the termination process the fragile glass fiber optic core is exposed throughout most of the process, this greatly increases the probability of damage to the core, thus threatening the performance capabilities of the cable. In a sense, the termination process is one of the most important aspects of your fiber optic assembly because of its vulnerability and high margin for error.

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    7 Common Quality Problems with Cat5e & Cat6 Ethernet Cables

    When it comes to Cat5e & Cat6 Ethernet Patch Cables, you might be tempted to think that an Ethernet cable is just an Ethernet cable, but do you know what you’re really getting? Ethernet cables have become one of the core frame work applications in computer networking. Being such a valuable component to computer networking and inter-business communications, demand for Ethernet cables are very high.

    Just like anything with a high demand, there are companies out there that will find a way to supply the demand in this billion dollar industry. In search for a slice of this billion dollar Ethernet cabling pie, companies range all over in levels of expertise, quality assurance, and price of Cat5e & Cat6 Ethernet Patch Cables. Just like any manufacturing process, the end product is only as good as the material and labor put in it. Some of the major quality issues with Ethernet patch cables are: 

    RJ45 Connector Quality Issues

    • Damaged or Crushed RJ45 Connector

     Cat5e & Cat6 Damaged Connector resized 600

    • Cracking in the RJ45 Connector Housing

     Cat5e & Cat6 Cracked Connector resized 600

    • Insufficient Gold-Plating on Contact Connectors

     Cat5e & Cat6 Connector Contacts resized 600

    Strain Relief Boot Quality Issues

    • Cracking or Excess Molding Material

     Cat5e & Cat6 Strain Relief Boot resized 600

    • Stressed out Strain Relief: Tearing in the base of the Strain Relief Boot

     Cat5e & Cat6 Strain Relief Tear resized 600

    Cable Jacket Quality Issues

    • Jacket Stretching/Stress

     Cat5e & Cat6 Stress Damage Jacket resized 600     Cat5e & Cat6 Stretched Jacket resized 600

     

     

     

     

     

    • Tears in the Jacket, revealing internal wiring

     Cat5e & Cat6 Damaged Jacket resized 600

    You must be careful to not overlook the importance of quality when purchasing Ethernet Patch Cables. Do your research to make sure you’re purchasing your Cat5e and Cat6 patch cables from a reputable supplier that maintains high quality standards when manufacturing products. Remember, you are the customer and it’s never a bad idea to ask your supplier, what Quality Assurance (QA) Procedures they follow to insure that you receive a product manufactured to the highest quality capabilities.

    describe the image

    JEM's Customer Driven Quality Assurance (QA) Procedures!

    Learn More About ISO (International Organization for Standardization)!

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    Passive Optical Networks (PON) - Commonly Used Terms & Definitions

    What exactly is a PON?  What is the difference between EPON and GPON?  With passive networks becoming very prominent across the communications industry, we’ve outlined some of the most commonly used terms along with their definitions, to help readers become more familiar with this particular technology.  (If you would like to suggest additional related PON terms, feel free to comment and we will update the list accordingly at M2 Optics)

    Commonly Used Terms & Definitions:

    PON
    Passive Optical Network (PON): A point-to-multipoint, passive fiber network architecture in which a single fiber utilizes optical splitters to serve multiple premises.

    ----------------------------------

    APON
    ATM PON (APON): The first type of PON standard, based on ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) which is a protocol in telecom networking.

    BPON
     
    Broadband PON (BPON): Coming after APON, BPON supports WDM, higher upstream bandwidth, and a standard management interface that enabled shared vendor networks.

    GPON
     
    Gigabit PON (GPON): Based on the previous PON types, GPON supports higher data rates and increased security, and has been deployed around the world by major telecom operators.

    EPON
    Ethernet PON (EPON): EPON is part of IEEE standard Ethernet for 1/1 Gbit/s,  10/1 Gbit/s,  and 10/10 Gbit/s. With over 40 million installed EPON ports, it is the most widely deployed PON technology worldwide. Cable operators are utilizing EPON for business services as part of the DOCSIS initiative.

    10G-PON
    XG-PON: Is a new standard from 2010 that enables the delivery of 10Gbit/s speeds using PON network architecture. As the next generation of GPON, devices can operate on the same network as GPON devices.

    ----------------------------------

    ODN
    Optical Distribution Network (ODN): Refers to the optical fiber and splitters between the OLT/ONU/ONT.

    OLT
    Optical Line Terminal (OLT): A Central Office node that is the interface between the PON and the service providers network services.

    ONU
    Optical Network Unit (ONU): Terminates the PON and includes an interface towards the end user, such as coax, multi-service Ethernet, xDSL, etc.

    ONT
    Optical Network Terminal (ONT):
    An ITU-T term to describe a single-user case of an ONU.

    NTE
    Network Termination Equipment (NTE): Service interface directly used by the end user (part of the ONU/ONT).

    ----------------------------------

    WDM
    Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM): Allows for a number of optical carrier signals to be put onto a single fiber at different wavelengths, thus enabling bidirectional traffic as well as increased capacity.

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    Optical Fiber Structural Solutions

    Fiber Optics are fabricated with a thin glass core, which serves as a common medium for data transfer. The thin, hair like glass core utilizes light waves to transfer data from one point to another. Fiber Optics can send and receive data faster than coppers conducted electrical current because the data is transmitted in the form of light pulses (Single Mode vs. Multimode).

    Having such a great advantage of speed also comes with an immense disadvantage. Since the Fiber Optic core is made out of a thin strand of glass, the cable is complications very fragile and must be handled very carefully to invert cable infringement. But what if the cable needs excessive physical contact and/or you want the advantages of the high speed connection and rugged ability of a copper cable (Copper vs. Fiber)?

    JEM has provided 2 different solutions to industry demands:

    Ruggedized Armored Fiber Opticsdescribe the image

    Armored Fiber is considered the ruggedized version of Fiber Optics. The transmission speeds are equal, but the cable is equipped with a hard Kevlar shield that is encased by a stainless steel braid, which increases the durability 450%. Armored Fiber is designed to withstand in the harshest environments and is utilized in industries such as Military & Defense, Manufacturing, Computer Networking, and Communication industries.

    Stretch your Investment with Coiled Fiber Optics

    Coiled Fiber overcomes its delicate nature with an improved new optical fiber design. Coiled Fiber is a helix design optical fiber, where the glass core is heat treated and manufactured into a coiled type structure. This special manufacturing process allows coiled fiber to be flexible and increases the durability and shelf life of the cable. When extending, handling, and/or bundling Coiled Optical Fiber, you don’t have to be concerned with compromising the quality of the cable. This flexible coil like design results in a substantial cost savings because one coiled fiber optic cable can meet various length requirements and the added durability will reduces your fiber optic expense.

     

    Coiled Fiber resized 600

    Optimize your Fiber Optic Expenditures

    JEM’s Coiled Fiber & Armored Fiber products will stretch your fiber optic investment by reducing fiber optic cable replacements and extending your cabling shelf life. JEM Electronics is dedicated to solving industry challenges and complications every day!


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    The Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission Speeds

    describe the imageThe fiber optic network transmission speed capabilities have been increasing to 1 and even 10 Gigabits per second (Gb/s) and beyond. A new term is being introduced in the optical fiber industry: “Laser Optimized Fibers” or sometimes commonly referred to as “OM3”. Laser Optimized Fiber is the newest breakthrough in the evolutionary chain for Optical Fiber transmission speeds. What does laser optimized fiber really mean? Why have optical fibers been “optimized” for use with lasers? Understanding the answers to these questions will help you prepare for the latest wave in optical communications.

    What is laser optimized fiber?

    “Laser Optimized Fiber Optics” or “OM3” is a fiber optic core that has been optimized by a laser source called a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL). VCSEL’s optimize optical fiber’s data streaming capabilities.

    Why have optical fibers been “optimized” for use with lasers?

    Older fiber optic systems operate at a relatively slow speed in the range of 4 to 155 Megabits per second (Mb/s). These systems utilize a very inexpensive light source called Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), which are optimal for these slower speeds. As demand increased for a bandwidth with higher throughput, LEDs could not keep up with the pace. LEDs can support a maximum modulation rate of 622 Mb/s, preventing LEDs to support the 1 Gb/s and great transmission rate the industry is calling out.

    The industry’s response to the higher modulation rate demand is utilizing a new route of light transmission called laser-optimization. The process of laser-optimization is achieved by Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL). This VCSELs are inexpensive like LEDs and are well suited for low-cost 850 nm multi-mode transmissions, allowing data rates of 1 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s.

    Conclusion

    As data becomes more advanced, the files become larger, and the amount of information to be transmitted increases exponentially. The Fiber Optic Network empire must always be growing and advancing with today’s heavy reliance on technology. VCSELs provide higher power, narrower spectral width, smaller spot size, and faster data rates than LEDs. All these advantages add up to a significant performance boost.

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    AmCon Tradeshow in Boston, MA

    What is AmCon?AmCon Tradeshow resized 600

    The AmCon Design & Contract Manufacturing Expo is the foundation to achieve the latest industry news & trends, quality lead generation, and Design & Contract Manufacturing supplier research.

    Why attend?

    1. Save time and expenses of traveling to prospective suppliers or national tradeshows
    2. View the latest industry trends and information
    3. Gain competitor insights
    4. Gather key industry contacts
    5. Further solidify relationships with current customers

    Tradeshow Details:

    June 21-22, 2011
    Aleppo Shriners Auditorium Wilmington, MA

    Tuesday June 21, 9:30 a.m.- 3:30 p.m.
    Wednesday, June 22, 9:30 a.m.- 3:00 p.m.

    Meet face-to-face with some of the finest job shops and contract manufacturers from throughout the U.S. and Canada.

    What JEM is doing?

    Grand Prize Raffle!

    COTS Quality Demonstrations

    Dedicating 2 days to any and all questions

     


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    Electronic Contract Manufacturing Testing

    qa analyst resized 600Why do we need to test a product at all when all we have to do is manufacture the product correctly in the first place? This is certainly a valid viewpoint, but human beings aren’t perfect. From time to time, you have what’s referred to as “human error”. Manufacturing companies conduct quality assurance testing check points in hopes to reduce and/or eliminate human error.

    When a consumer decides to provide business to your company, both the customer and the manufacturing company are entering a “contact of trust”. This contact of trust represents the mutual agreement between the consumer and manufacturer, stating that the customer will provide payment in return for a quality product that will perform the functional requirements of the customer.

    The objective of testing in an electronic manufacturing environment is to ensure the optical, electrical, and physical measurement of the components meet the agreed design specifications. When the consumer receives their product, they expect it to be functionally tested. A defective product costs both the consumer and manufacturer time and money. A defective product also loses supplier credibility, lowers morale, and dampens the business-to-customer relationship. 

    In order to maximize test coverage of products and reduce costs for our customers, JEM has implemented multiple strategies. One of these strategies is the “JEM Process System,” or JPS. The concentration of JPS is to evaluate any process from start to finish, seeing where efficiency improvements can be made. Working hand and hand with JPS is a process referred to as Lean Manufacturing. The objective of Lean Manufacturing is to eliminating waste, but how can eliminating waste & making process improvements affect testing abilities?

    Success resized 600The mathematical equation of JEM’s success and support structure revolves around one simple equation: “End Product = The Customer”. End Product = The Customer simply means that all processes involved in the creation of the product affects our customer. The question is if we are creating additional value adds for our customers or additional wastes?

    Waste, in Lean Manufacturing, can be referred to as anything that does not add value to the customer. The purpose of JPS & Lean Manufacturing is to make the process as fast and as effective as possible. Reductions in process cycle-times due to identifying and eliminating wastes, Quality Assurance (QA) batch process error control, and maximum utilization of labor translates into an increase in production capabilities with the same time restraints and a substantial cost savings for our customers.

     

    Building Business Success Through Lean Manufacturing!

    10 Tips to Selecting an Electronics Contract Manufacturer!


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    The Wire Harnesses, Cable Assembly, & Wire Processing Guide for Choosing a Contract Manufacturer

    EngineWiringHarness resized 600Wire Harness & Cable Assemblies- Wire harnesses and cable assemblies come in all styles and sizes to address a multitude of applications. There can be many production steps involved in the manufacturing of and cable assemblies. The level of the manufacturing complexity is prudent when selecting a contract manufacturer. Some raw materials utilized could be: wire, terminals, connectors, active components, labels, and much more. Build methods include soldering, welding, crimping, tie wrapping, taping, bundling, molding, and potting. You may want to consider the following areas when selecting a contract manufacturer:

    Wire Processing- Can include: cutting, stripping, termination, welding, soldering, and splicing

    The Guide:

    Company History

    How long have they been in business for?

    Longevity is a sign of strength. While their competitors have come and gone, the company that has managed to endure the test of time will most likely be a strong business partner.

    Core competencies?

    Some companies pride themselves on customer satisfaction, being able to conform to the customers every need. What are the manufacturer’s core competencies? Can the manufacturer meet all your production needs? The more work the manufacturer can perform in-house, the less work will have to be outsourced, making it likely that your cost and lead time will be reduced.

    Financial health?

    Your contract manufacturer needs to have the ability to access cash or lines of credit to purchase raw materials, equipment, etc, to meet the needs of your company. A company that has its money tied up has less flexibility in linear and vertical strategic financial movements.

    Industry Diversification:

    A company diversified across many industries will withstand market fluctuation.

    Manufacturing Capabilities

    Capacity: Low Volume vs. High Volume:

    Does the contract manufacturer have sufficient floor space and staff to accommodate dramatic increases in production? If your product line suddenly takes off in the marketplace, your contract manufacturer must have the ability to meet the demand.

    Strategic Off-shore Manufacturing Capabilities:

    Some companies are sending work overseas to be completed where labor is cheaper, and they can charge a less expensive rate to the customer, thus saving you money. On the other hand, you may require your assemblies to be built in the U.S.A.

    Flexible Production Scheduling:

    How can the manufacturer respond to your production needs? Can the manufacturer source the components needed to build your assembly? By allowing the contract manufacturer to take care of this detail, you free yourself of the time, money and frustration of doing it all yourself. However, you may want to supply your own components. Is the manufacturer willing to work with customer supplied components?

    Quality Assurancedescribe the image

    What certifications do they hold?

    Is the company ISO or TS Certified? Are they ITAR certified? You want to ensure the manufacturer has a robust quality system.

    How well do they correct problems?

    Human beings aren’t perfect. From time to time, you have what’s referred to as, “human error.” Wire harnesses and cable assemblies come in a range of complexities, increasing the margin of error. When an error is created, how effective is your Contract Manufacturer at correcting the problem quickly, efficiently, and effectively?

    Engineering and Quality Assurance support on staff?

    An on-staff engineer will have the ability to reverse engineer; interpret and/or adapt your product where it falls short. In many cases, contract manufacturing firms are only able to “build to print.”

    Conclusion

    Customer-Supplier Relationship:

    JEM handshake resized 600When a manufacturer and a customer enter into a business relationship, both parties are entering into a “contract of trust.” Be sure to research the company’s history of manufacturing capabilities, quality system, and so forth. This will help you establish an educated decision on whether or not the manufacturing company will be able to meet your needs. You must communicate these expectations to the company, and the manufacturer must be able to meet these expectations in order to have a positive working relationship.

    10 Tips to Selecting An Electronics Contract Manufacturer

     


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    Why Outsource Your Cable Assembly?

    advantages of outsourcing resized 600Cable Assembly and Wire Harness outsourcing to offshore manufacturers is beginning to reduce as fuel costs rise and the US Government establishes stricter standards for foreign-supplied material. As the current US administration relinquishes tax incentives to corporations that ship jobs overseas, plus rising fuel costs, and regulatory & quality issues, companies are starting to rethink their strategies. This article will outline the strategic benefits for outsourcing your cable assembly needs to an experienced domestic manufacturer versus procuring an offshore supplier.

    Quality Assurance is a benchmark term in the electro-mechanical cabling world. Cable assemblies can range in complexity; the more components in an assembly can increase the complexity dramatically. The best strategy for ensuring the highest level of QA is to establish excellent QA procedures and execute all manufacturing processes in-house. Most manufacturing businesses do not execute every process involved in the overall finished product in-house. Strategic business relationships are then created to outsource certain manufacturing jobs to either a higher level of expertise and/or to decrease component and labor costs.

    Lower the Risks

    The decision to outsource a manufacturing process mainly derives from cost reduction. This aims the focus overseas because of the cheaper labor costs. Cost reductions associated with overseas manufacturers can result in inopportune barriers:

    • Language barriers

      • How easy is it to communicate with your overseas manufacturer?Quality assurance picture resized 600
    • Business operational time differences

      • Is your manufacturer open when you’re sleeping, or bias versa?
    • Quality Assurance (QA)

      • Do you really know what you’re getting? Are their QA procedures at your company’s level?
    • Logistics & Cost

      • How long will it take you to procure your product and at what cost?

    Cut Costs

    These barriers can cost you more in time, energy, and money to make sure that the job is executed to your standards. Outsourcing cable assembly operations to an experienced external company allows the manufacturer to reduce staff time, training, and capital expenditures on these processes and issue funds elsewhere to new business developments.

    Endurance & Effectiveness

    Utilizing an experienced contract manufacturer to outsource your cable assembly needs translates to:

    • Faster project turnaround, from design to deliverability

    • Faster launch ability for new projects

    • Cost reductions in staff-time and training

    The forecasted electronics assembly market value is set to grow to over $1.4 trillion by 2014. According to Bruce Carlson and Daniel Granderson, authors of Kalorama’s report, “Contract Manufacturing in Medical Devices”. Device manufacturers are feeling pressure to streamline operations to see more product innovation, as well as larger production volumes. In addition to meeting market demand, manufacturers are feeling the tension from group purchasing organizations to overcome pricing pressures. As a result, more stress can be placed on a company’s staff and facilities. Add a language barrier, an extreme business operation time difference, and/or a questionable Quality Assurance (QA) Profit Logo resized 600process, and you could have a real problem on your hands.

    The overall objective whenever outsourcing any manufacturing process is to ensure a high level of QA, cost reductions in the manufacturing and labor process, and establishing excellent rapport with the supplier. This can prove to be very difficult when your suppliers’ operation hours aren’t consistent with your company’s, a substantial communication barrier is created, and also a questionable QA process. These barriers can cost you more in time and money, even though the assembly cost itself is cheaper. As in any business relation, communication is key. Make sure there are no communication barriers that your manufacturer is available to answer questions when you need them, and that you and the manufacturer both know what’s expected to carry out the job successfully and effectively.

    View JEM's Custom Cable Assembly & Wire Harness Capabilities!

    View JEM's COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) Products!


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    Counterfeit Electronic Components in the US Market

    Counterfeit Comp resized 600The US Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Carl Levin and Republican leader John McCain spoke at Congress on June 14th regarding the issue of “counterfeit electronic components imported from China.” Senator Levin said, “In the past few months, the bipartisan members of the Senate Armed Services Committee talked with US manufacturers, distributors, and defense contractors. They almost unanimously pointed out that the fake electronic components are from China, particularly Shenzhen, Guangdong.”

    Last year, Business Week published a long report stating that the shoddy electronic components coming from China got into the US military and were utilized on military aircrafts and warships. The report further stated that at Robins Air Force Base in Georgia, fake electronic chips were found in F-15 fighter plane computers. Hundreds of shoddy routers made in China were sold to the US Army and Air Force.

    Robert P. Ernst, a Naval Air Systems official responsible for investigating the counterfeits, estimated that among the spare and replacement parts that the US Department of Defense bought, at least fifteen percent are fake. The US Defense Official in charge of tracking fake goods conducted a secret project survey: the result showed that in the past few years, a total of 115 accidents were caused by fake electronic chips. Experts believe that this is just the very tip of the iceberg.

    View JEM's Custom Cable Assembly & Wire Harness Abilities!


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    Optimize Your COTS Supply Chain Management

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) is a cross-functional approach that includes managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, the internal process of managing materials into finished goods, and moving the finished goods out of the organization and toward the end-consumer.

    JEM strives to be a leading participant in your Supply Chain Management. The key processes involved in excellent Supply Chain Management are:

    • describe the imageCustomer relationship management

    • Customer service management

    • Demand management style

    • Order fulfillment

    • Manufacturing flow management

    • Supplier relationship management

    • Product development and commercialization

    • Returns management

    How would you like to work with an Electronic Contract Manufacturer with the added value of trying to improve your supply chain management with Commercial Off-The-Shelf Products (COTS)?

    JEM Electronics has been an established Electronic Contract Manufacturer for over thirty years. As a value-add to our customers, the “JEM Electronics Online Store” division was created in 2009 to offer high quality and affordable solutions for your network cabling needs. Unlike many COTS Suppliers, this new division provides the same high level of quality assurance and customer service as a contract manufacturer. Allowing our customers to cut down on the time spent on supplier searching and qualification, JEM has provided everything you need for IT/Network Cabling needs.

    What is Commercial Off-The-Shelf Products (COTS)?

    COTS purchases are alternatives to in-house developments or one-off government-funded developments. COTS typically requires configuration that is tailored for specific uses. The use of COTS products has been mandated across many government and business programs. These products may offer significant savings in procurement, development, and maintenance.

    JEM Electronics - Electronic Contract Manufacturer

    JEM Electronics - Commercial Off-The-Shelf Products (COTS)


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    Fiber Optic Quick Reference Terminology
    describe the image

    9/125- Refers to a Single Mode Fiber Optic Cable. “9” represents the core diameter and “125” represents the cladding diameter.

    50/125- Refers to a Multimode Fiber Optic Cable. “50” represents the core diameter and “125” represents the cladding diameter.

    62.5/125- Refers to a Multimode Fiber Optic Cable. “62.5” represents the core diameter and “125” represents the cladding diameter.

    Cladding- Cladding is one or more layers of material with a lower refractive index. The cladding causes light to be confined to the core of the fiber by total internal reflection at the boundary between the two.

    describe the imageSingle Mode- Single Mode optical fiber is designed to carry only a single ray of light. Single Mode Fiber is ideal for long distances.

    Multimode- Multimode optical fiber is designed to carry multiple rays of light, because of its larger core size. Multimode fiber is ideal for short distances.

    Simplex- Simplex fiber optic cables consist of a single fiber, and are used in applications that only require one-way data transfer. Simplex fiber is available in Single Mode and Multimode.

    Duplex- Duplex fiber optic cables consist of two fibers, usually in a zip cord (side-by-side) style. Workstations, fiber switches and servers, fiber modems, and similar hardware require duplex cable. Duplex fiber is available in Single Mode and Multimode.

    4-Core- Consists of four individual fiber optic cores and is used in applications that demand multiple fiber optic strands with tight installation restraints.

    describe the imageArmored Fiber- Armored Fiber is considered to be the ruggedized version of Fiber Optics. The transmission speeds are equivalent, but the cable is equipped with a hard Kevlar shield that is encased by a stainless steel braid. This increases the durability by 450%. Armored Fiber is designed to withstand the harshest environments, and is utilized in industries such as Military & Defense, Manufacturing, Computer Networking, and Communication industries.

     

     

    Coiled Fiber- Coiled Fiber is a helix-designed optical fiber, where the glass core is heat treated and manufactured into a coiled-type structure. This special manufacturing process allows coiled fiber to be flexible and increases the durability and shelf life of the cable. When extending, handling, and/or bundling Coiled Optical Fiber, you don’t have to be concerned with compromising the quality of the cable. This flexible coil-like design results in a substantial cost savings because one coiled fiber optic cable can meet various length requirements; the added durability will reduce your fiber optic expenses.describe the image

     

     

     

    PC- Physical Contact polish is the standard fiber optic polish. With PC polish the end-face of the fiber into a circular surface. This spherical surface will decrease backward reflection.

    PC resized 600

     

    APC- Angled Physical Contact polish is used in applications that require very low back-reflection. The fiber end-face is polished at an angle to prevent light that reflects from the interface from traveling back up the fiber. Because of the angle, the reflected light does not stay in the fiber core, but instead leaks out into the cladding. Angle-polished connectors only mate properly to other angle-polished connectors.APC resized 600

     

     

    UPC or SPC- “Ultra” or “Super” Physical Contact connectors may achieve comparable back-reflection to an angled connector when connected, but an angled connection maintains low back-reflection, even when the output end of the fiber is unmated.

    JEM Fiber Optic Structural Solutions!

    The Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission Speeds


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    Continuity, HiPot, and Resistance Testing

    Continuity, HiPot, and Resistance: What do these three terms mean to a cable manufacturer and its consumers? Each refers to the measurement or assessment of electrical current in a cable assembly. They are interrelated in different ways and may be broken down into simple terms once a basic understanding of electrical characteristics is established. Below is a quick glossary of key phrases to know when learning about electrical testing:

    • Electrical Current – a measure of the amount of electrical charge transferred  between electrons through any conductive material; measured in “amperes”
    • Ampere (A) – commonly referred to as “Amps”; a unit of measurement  representing the rate of flow of electric charge
    • TESTINGSig resized 600Resistance – determines the amount of current that will flow through a component; measured in “ohms”
    • Ohm (?) – discovered by Georg Simon Ohm, German physicist; a unit of electrical resistance between two points of a conductor; a constant potential difference of one volt between them produces a current of one ampere
    • Voltage (V) – commonly referred to as “Volts”; a unit of measurement representing the difference in electrical potential (pressure) between two points in a circuit
    • Continuity  – the ease of electrical flow from one point to another with low resistance; checks for “good connection”
    • HiPot Testing - (High Potential/High Voltage) - checks for “good isolation” of electrical flow from one point to another with high resistance

    Resistance is a term to describe how much current is actually flowing through a conductive material, represented in “ohms”. It is also defined as the opposition to the flow of electric current. The more ohms that are measured within the material, the greater the resistance. Anything and everything from end to end in a cable adds resistance to it.

    “HiPot”, or High Potential, tests find how well the flow is isolated within the cable’s protective insulation with a great amount of voltage sent through the cable itself. The word “potential” in the name is synonymous with volts, as mentioned in the glossary. To pass this test, there needs to be no flow of electricity from end to end. Continuity tests are performed to determine how easily the electrical current may flow with a weak amount of volts sent through. A test of continuity that passes is a result of a proper connection from end to end.

    If both tests pass, the cable is rendered safe and functioning. A cable manufacturer will benefit from utilizing both tests because it ensures that the cable will not malfunction under the highest or lowest levels of resistance. 

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    describe the image

     

     


    HiPot Testing

    HiPot or (High Potential) testing, measures the electrical flow within the cable. The goal is to measure and determine if the individual conductors have an isolated electrical flow. Under high levels of resistance and voltage, the cable should ideally pass if there are no “contaminants” or corrosive materials within the structure.lightning resized 600

    3 Types of HiPot Testing:

    Dielectric Withstand Test

    This test is non-destructive and most safety agencies require all products to be 100% dielectric withstand tested before leaving the factory. At JEM, a current of 500 ohms will be sent through the cable so that any errors within the cable will be found. If the current does not flow from end to end, the cable has passed.

    Insulation Resistance Test

    This test is used to provide a quantifiable resistance value for all of a product's insulation. The test voltage is applied in the same fashion as a standard HiPot test, but is specified to be Direct Current (DC). The voltage and measured current value are used to calculate the resistance of the insulation.

    Dielectric Breakdown Test

    In this testing procedure the test voltage is increased until the dielectric fails, or breaks down. The dielectric is often destroyed by this test so this test is used on a random sample basis. This test allows designers to estimate the breakdown voltage of a product's design.

    JEM has incorporated multiple testing strategies in order to ensure the highest quality of our cabling products. In addition to HiPot Testing, we also incorporate Continuity & Resistance Testing to aid in our purpose for optimal quality assurance.

    Learn What Contaminates Cause Your Cable to Fail HiPot Testing!


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    Fiber Optics 101

    An Optical Fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a "light pipe" to transmit data signals in the form of light from one end to the other. Three standard Fiber Optic formats are:

    • 9/125 (Single Mode)

    • 50/125 (Multi-mode)

    • 62.5/125 (Multi-mode)describe the image

    What do these numbers mean?

    9/125- Refers to a Single Mode Fiber Optic Cable. “9” represents the core diameter and “125” represents the cladding diameter.

    50/125- Refers to a Multi-mode Fiber Optic Cable. “50” represents the core diameter and “125” represents the cladding diameter.

    describe the image62.5/125- Refers to a Multi-mode Fiber Optic Cable. “62.5” represents the core diameter and “125” represents the cladding diameter.

    Single Mode vs. Multi-mode?

    Single Mode

    Single Mode optical fiber is designed to carry only a single ray of light; this produces more of a direct line.

      • Used for longer distances
      • Smaller core size, typically between 8 and 10µm.
      • Common for telecommunications

    Multi-mode

    As light travels through a Multi-Mode fiber optic cable, the light is bounced back and forth towards the ending direction. The bouncing of the rays of light is more suitable for multiple and shorter connections.

      • Larger core size
      • Used for shorter distances, such as within a building.
      • Multi-mode fiber has a higher light-gathering capacity than single mode.

    Single Mode vs. Multi mode resized 600

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    Multi-core Armored Fiber Optic Cables

    Armored Fiber Cables resized 600 Armored Fiber is a ruggedized version of Fiber Optic cable. The Armored Fiber is reinforced with robust Kevlar shielding, encased by a stainless steel braid, allowing the fiber optic cable to withstand in the most rugged environment. Overall durability increases 450%. Multi-core Armored Fiber has all the added benefits of Armored Fiber with multiple fiber optic strands.

    Applications Armored Fiber has been utilized in:

    • Military Land and Air Vehicles
    • Naval Submarines and Aircraft Carriers
    • Unmanned Robotics

    Armored Fiber is designed to perform in the harshest environments and is utilized in industries such as military and defense, robotics, and communications. How do you know if JEM’s Multi-core Armored Fiber is right for your application?

    Ideal applications for Multi-core Armored Fiber Optics:

    • Armored Fiber Military Communications resized 600Constant touch time
      • Will you be frequently interacting with the Fiber Optic Cable (constant touching, unplugging, and plugging)?
    • Exposure to outside elements
      • Will your Fiber Optic Cable be exposed to moisture, sand, dirt or dust?
    • Areas where outside stress/pressure will be placed on the cable
      • Will your Fiber Optic Cable be subjected to pulling, tugging, or movement?
    • Tight space requirements
      • When installing your Fiber Optic cable, are you working with tight space requirements?

    A negative of fiber optic cables is its fragility due to its core being made out of a thin strand of glass. JEM’s Multi-core Armored Fiber Optic cables eliminate this downside of fiber optic cables. You will have to replace your fiber optic cables less due to damage, resulting in a cost savings. In addition, the multi-core option allows you to purchase one cable that has the functionality of multiple cables, which reduces your fiber cable expenditure.

    Learn More About Armored Fiber!


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    describe the image

     

     


    Dispersions in Fiber Optic Cables

    Prism of LIGHT resized 600When dealing with fiber optic cables, dispersion is a term that refers to the phenomenon in which the spectrum of light traveling through a cable arrives at different times. The speed at which any one frequency component of the wave travels at is described by a term called, “Phase Velocity.” The phase velocity is determined by the rate at which the phase of the light wave propagates in space. Dispersion is often referred to as “Chromatic Dispersion” to emphasize its wavelength-dependent nature or “Group-velocity Dispersion” (GVD) to emphasize the role of the group velocity. Media having such a property are termed as “Dispersive Media.”

    There are two sources of dispersion (Generally):

    1. Material Dispersion

      • Derives from the frequency-dependent response of a material in the light waves.
        • Ex: Material dispersion leads to undesired chromatic aberrations in a lens or the separation of colors in a prism
    2. Waveguide Dispersion

      • Occurs when the speed of a wave in a waveguide (like in fiber optic cables) depends on its frequency for geometric reason, independent of any inhomogeneous (non-uniform) structure, whether or not the waves are confined to some region.
        • Ex: One cause of waveguide dispersion through inhomogeneous structures is photonic crystals.

    describe the imageChromatic dispersion is a deciding factor in the performance of your fiber optic cables because it is the result of wavelengths, or different colors, in a light beam arriving at their destination at slightly different times. Special care must be taken to compensate for this dispersion so that the optical fiber can perform to its maximum capabilities. Chromatic dispersion becomes a major concern when developing or deploying fiber optic equipment for use in telecommunications, cable TV, or other high-speed optical networks.

    In conclusion, techniques have been developed and adapted to help reduce the negative effects of optical dispersion. One method involves pre-compensating for the anticipated dispersion before the signal is sent down the optical fiber. Another method calls for using dispersion-compensating fiber at the end of the cable length to correct or reverse the dispersion that was realized as the signal traversed the optical fiber. These techniques are widely used to help solve the problem of chromatic dispersion in fiber optic cables.

    JEM's Fiber Optic Structural Solutions!

    Fiber Optics 101


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    Do Designers of Defense Electronic Systems Seek Out COTS Components?

    Due to the economic conditions over the past eleven years, designers of defense electronic systems are seeking out Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components not only to save money and avoid obsolescence, but to also integrate the latest technologies available.

    US Armed Forces 1 resized 600COTS components are considered an alternative to custom-designed components for specific military needs. Developing standard COTS components for these military custom components into COTS components enables defense system designers to:

    1. Procure reliable components faster

    2. Reduces cycle time

    3. Implement new technology faster

    4. Reduces obsolescence in components

    A document released by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 2000, “Commercial Item Acquisition: Considerations and Lessons Learned,” spelled out the reasoning behind adopting commercial technology for defense-related systems (DoD Directive 5000.1): “Expanding the use of commercial items in DoD systems offers the DoD opportunities for reduced cycle time, fast insertion of new technology, lower-life cycle costs, greater reliability and availability, and support from a more robust industrial base.” A concern developed by military system designers and integrators that the supplier base may not be diversified enough to produce specialized and largely customized electronic components in these economic times.USAFSAB resized 600

    In the same year, the U.S. Air Force published, “Ensuring Successful Implementations of Commercial Items in Air Force Systems” (available for download at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA411926) which compared commercial and COTS items as defined by Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and how COTS components could be put to optimum use in U.S. Air Force systems.

    At one time, the U.S. government steered clear of commercial components or software in electronic defense systems. But with the harsh economic times comes a willingness to use Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components and software in military systems. The introduction of COTS components will aid the military in procuring reliable material faster, reduce and avoid obsolescence in components, faster insertion of new technology, and most of all allowing a surplus of cash flow in the U.S. Economy.

    (Referenced: Browne, Jack. "Choosing Military Or COTS Components?" MicroWaves&RF 1 Sept. 2011: 52.)

    Learn About JEM's Involvement with United States Armed Forces


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    What is Diffused Reflection or Light Scattering in Fiber Optic Cables?

    Light transmission through the core of an optical fiber cable is based on total internal reflection of light waves. As the light waves start to enter the fiber optic cable, they are introduced into a transparent glass or plastic core that acts as a transmission medium for the light waves to travel at exponential speeds. The light waves travel through the optical fiber core by bouncing from one side of the core to the other. The core size will determine the angle at which the light travels; this is referred to as, “internal reflection.”optical fiber light waves resized 600

    The optical fiber core appears to be smooth in nature, but at a molecular level it is a whole different story. Under a microscope you may notice rough or irregular surfaces on the optical core. The inadequate surfaces can cause light rays to be reflected in random directions causing the data in the light wave to arrive to the end location at different times. This is called, “diffused reflection” or “light scattering” and is typically characterized by a wide variety of reflection angles.fiber optic cable resized 600

    As diffused reflection light waves travel through the fiber optic cable, the data stream becomes broken up. The cable’s performance is compromised because you now have multiple light data streams instead of one continuous stream. When light waves stay grouped together and follow the same angled pathway, the data is transmitted and received faster at the end location.

    It is nearly impossible to visually identify rough or irregular surfaces within the core, especially when the glass or plastic core is concealed with cladding and jacket materials. The result of the data streams becoming broken up due to light scattering will directly affect the cable’s performance. This is why it is very important to select a qualified manufacturer that tests for diffused reflection or light scattering. Without precise internal reflection, your fiber optic cable’s performance will be sacrificed.

    Fiber Optics 101!

    Fiber Optic Structural Solutions!


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